Congestive heart failure (Stage II NYHA) Hypertension atherosclerosis , arrhythmia and angina pectoris .
Take 2 to 3 tablets a day with some water .
No serious adverse drug reactions have been reported from hawthorn , and it appears to be safe and effecting for CHF. However, higher doses have the potential to induce hypotension and sedation .
Use in pregnancy and lactation :
No adverse effects expected.
Each coated tablet contains 240 mg of dry extract of leaves and flowers of crataegus (Hawthorn), standardized on the basis of 4-6 mg vitexin -2- ramnoside
Active ingredients :
The major compounds are :
Flavonoids, hyperoside , vitexin rhamnoside , rutin, apigenin, procyanidins , epicatechin , catechin .
Hawthorn's beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease , pharmacokinetic , pharmacodynamic and metabolic studies have been extensively studied(1).
Because of its strong cardiac activity , hawthorn has been suggested to be of use in congestive heart failure (2) , and cardiac performance (2) . The flavonoids cause an increase in coronary flow and heart rate and a positive inotropic effect . In isolated animal hearts , the inhibition of the enzyme 3:5' – cyclic adenosine menophosphate phosphodiestrase may by a mechanism by which hawthorn exerts its cardiac actions(3).
Hawthorn flavonoids also possess vasodilatory action (4) . Extracts of hawthorn dilate blood vessels in particular coronary blood vessels resulting in reduced pheripheral resistance and increased coronary circulations .
Hawthorn is also known to be beneficial in myocardial ischemia (5) , the flavonoid , mono acetyl , vitexin rhamnoside , possesses marked anti - ischemic Properties in several in vitro models , suggesting improvement in myocardial perfusion .
Hawthorn has been studied in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis . A hawthorn preparation was administered to animals, resulting in lower cholesterol, triglycerides, blood viscosity, and fibrinogen lewels vs. controls (6).
The mechanism is the up-regulation of hepatic LDL – receptors , resulting in a greater influx of cholesterol in to the liver . Hawthorn was also found to enhance cholesterol degradation (6 ) .
1- Murray, M.T, Pizzorno Jr , JE. : Crataegeus oxyacantha. Pharmacology of Natural Medicine pp 683-687,1999.
2- O. Conolly VM, et al. :Treatment of cardiac performance in advanced age with standardized crataegeus extract. Fortschr Med 1986; 104;805-808.
3- Petkov E, &, Nikolov N; Uzunov p.: Inhibitory effect of some flavonoid and flavonoid mixtures on cyclic AMP, phosphodiesterase activity of rat heart. Planta Medica 1981; 43;183-186.
4- Schussler M. et al.: Arzneim-Forsch 1995;45(8);842-845.
5-AL Makdessi s,et al.: Arzneim-Forsch 1996;46(1):25-27.
6- Middleton E. : The flavonoids. Trends Pharm Sci 1984;5:335-338.
7- Loew D. Der Kassenarzt 1994 ; 15 : 43 – 52 .